Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM), launched in December 2005 by the then Congress government primarily focussed on the development of urban conglomeration of Indian cities. To quote the mission statement, JNNURM aims at creating “economically productive, efficient, equitable and responsive Cities’ by a strategy of upgrading the social and economic infrastructure in cities, provision of Basic Services to Urban Poor (BSUP) and wide-ranging urban sector reforms to strengthen municipal governance in accordance with the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992.”
65 cities were selected for providing guidelines and financial support under JNNURM and to qualify for JNNURM funding, in 2007, KDMC prepared a City Development Plan (CDP). Some of the proposed projects like parking plaza near Durgadi fort, a multiplex theatre and shopping mall complex, a vegetable market at Katemanivili, etc. were BOT (Built-On-Transfer) projects, whereas other projects mainly related to water supply, sewage treatment, sanitation, building roads, etc. were linked to JNNURM projects and financing. The total capital investment by the city under the JNNURM was almost 780 crore rupees, of which half was provided through a capital grant from JNNURM, and another 32% by loans which KDMC has taken. The remainder was provided through KDMC’s own revenue. (CDP, 2007).
Projects identified by CDP 2007 under JNNURM were,
- Water Supply
- Underground Sewerage scheme
- Storm Water Drains
- Solid Waste Management
- Roads, Traffic & Transport
- Station Area Development Scheme
- Station Area Development Scheme
- Street Lighting
- Urban Poverty & Slum Upgrading
- Conservation of Water Bodies
Among the projects, Water Supply was prioritised and had the largest share of spending. The construction of new elevated service reservoirs at Barave and Govindwadi in Kalyan (W), laying new distribution pipelines in the new zone of Kalyan (W), and construction of 15 ML capacity reservoir at Netivli for emergency water storage, were started under JNNURM to counter the short of water supply by KDMC and depending on MIDC (Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation) for water supply. (Baud et al., 2013)
The projects under JNNURM were generally conceived under PPP (Public Private Partnership) model and administering authorities were KDMC, state level nodal agency of JNNURM, MMRDA and for final approval MoUD (Ministry of Urban Development). One of JNNURM’s mandatory institutional reforms was including the public participation in decision making. But little effort was shown in that respect by the KDMC and government agencies remained the strong drivers behind the projects. Apparently, an informal citizens’ committee (formed by the eminent citizens like lawyers, famous medical practitioners, teachers/professors, traders of the area) also came into being for a short period of two months during the preparation of CDP and disintegrated soon after. (Baud et al., 2013)
The implementation of the conceived projects and proper utilisation of funding remains complicated in lot of areas. Some projects have been driven by the KDMC like the described water supply one, but largely the effective implementation of the projects remain contested with no proper accountable documents available in the public domain.
 Build–operate–transfer (BOT) or build–own–operate–transfer (BOOT) is a form of project financing, wherein a private entity receives a concession from the private or public sector to finance, design, construct, own, and operate a facility stated in the concession contract. This enables the project proponent to recover its investment, operating and maintenance expenses in the project.
- KDMC (2007) City Development Plan (CDP) for Kalyan Dombivili Municipal Corporation
- (2013). The Development of Kalyan Dombivili; Fringe City in a Metropolitan Region. Change 2 Sustain, City Report .